Electricity Sources

  • Fuel consumption data, power generation data for Indian States and U.T.'s : Central Electrical Authority - All India Electricity Statistics (General Review - 2006).
  • India power generation, fuel NCV's & IPCC GHG emission factors :

    http://cdm.unfccc.int/UserManagement/FileStorage/2CY23TDSB9TF6YSDX3IS6Z5Z3DJWVR

  • Electricity purchase & sale data for Indian States and U.T.'s : Central Electrical Authority - All India Electricity Statistics (General Review - 2006).

Electricity Assumptions

  • Zero emissions assumed for non-fossil fuel based energy generation i.e. solar, hydro, nuclear, wind and any other renewable.
  • Electricity related emissions are augmented with a transmission distribution loss factor of 1.56.
  • Only state-specific electricity generation considered for emissions coefficient calculation. Contribution of national grid to states not included.

Fuel Sources

  • LPG fuel energy and GHG emissions data : Greenhouse Implications Of Household Stoves - An Analysis for India by Kirk R. Smith, R. Uma, V.V.N. Kishore, Junfeng Zhang, V. Joshi, and M.A.K. Khalil.
  • Prices of LPG in metro-cities : Indian Oil Corporation.
  • PNG Fuel tariff data : Mahanagar Gas Limited.
  • PNG fuel energy and GHG emissions data :

    http://cdm.unfccc.int/UserManagement/FileStorage/2CY23TDSB9TF6YSDX3IS6Z5Z3DJWVR

Milk Sources

  • Dairy animals population data : Indian Academy of Sciences - Current Science Journal.
  • Indian livestock milk production data : Govt. of India, Ministry of Agriculture - Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying, and Fisheries.
  • Nationwide and Statewise GHG emissions from dairy livestock activities : Indian Academy of Sciences - Current Science Journal.
  • Methane emissions per milk yield ratio data : Indian Academy of Sciences - Current Science Journal.
  • GHG emissions from livestock activities (WORLD) : United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Report - Livestock's Long Shadow - Environmental Issues and Options.

Meat Sources

  • Indian non-dairy livestock population details and respective contribution to methane generation data : Indian Academy of Sciences - Current Science Journal.
  • CH4 emissions from livestock activities (INDIA) data : Indian Academy of Sciences - Current Science Journal.
  • GHG emissions from livestock activities (WORLD) data : United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Report - Livestock's Long Shadow - Environmental Issues and Options.
  • Animal slaughter and average animal yield data : GOI Ministry of Agriculture - Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying, and Fisheries.

Meat Assumptions

  • Chicken and fish excluded in this version of the Simple Calculator.
  • 200 grams meat assumed to be consumed per meal (based on household level sampling).
  • All non-dairy livestock emissions attributed to meat production.

Rice Sources

  • Rice Production data : Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations.
  • India rice cultivation GHG emissions data : Indian Institute of Science - Greenhouse gas emissions from India : A perspective by Subodh Sharma, Sumana Bhattacharya, and Amit Garg.

Rice Assumptions

  • 150 grams rice assumed to be consumed per meal (based on household level sampling).

City Travel Sources

  • Autorickshaw tariff data (Mumbai) : Mumbai Traffic Control. Branch
  • Autorickshaw fleet data (Mumbai) : The Energy Research Institute (TERI) and Mahanagar Gas.
  • Autorickshaw GHG emissions and fuel economy data : Automotive Research Institute of India (ARAI) and The Energy Research Institute (TERI).
  • Taxi Tariff data (Mumbai) : Mumbai Traffic Control Branch.
  • Taxi fleet data (Mumbai) : The Energy Research Institute (TERI) and Mahanagar Gas.
  • Taxi GHG emissions and fuel economy data : National Physics Laboratory, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Ohio Supercomputer Institute (USA) and The Energy Research Institute (TERI).
  • AC Taxi Tariff data : Approximated from Regular Taxi tariff card.
  • AC Taxi GHG emissions data : Approximated from Regular Taxi GHG emissions.
  • BEST Mumbai Fare Structure (Mumbai) :

    http://www.bestundertaking.com/transport/index.htm

  • BEST Bus Fleet data :

    http://www.bestundertaking.com/trans_engg.asp

  • BEST Bus Service - Operation Statistics data : Central Institute of Road Transport (CIRT).
  • Public Transport passenger load factor data (Mumbai) : Indian Institute of Technology.
  • Bus fuel economy data : The Energy Research Institute (TERI).
  • BEST AC Bus tariff structure (Mumbai) :

    http://www.bestundertaking.com/transport/index.htm

  • BEST AC Bus fleet data (Mumbai) :

    http://www.bestundertaking.com/trans_engg.asp

  • Annual electricity consumption by local trains data : Indian Railways - Financial Statements and Operating Statistics, 2006 - 2007.
  • Average speed data for local trains : Indian Railways - Financial Statements and Operating Statistics, 2006 - 2007.
  • Annual passenger-kilometers data for local trains : Indian Railways - Financial Statements and Operating Statistics, 2006 - 2007.
  • Charter bus fuel economy data : The Energy Research Institute (TERI).
  • Charter bus average speed data : The Pew Center on Global Climate Change.

City Travel Assumptions

  • Single occupancy assumed.
  • Mumbai city tariff structure assumed for all cities in this version of the Simple Calculator. This will be gradually replaced with city specific data in the future.
  • Age distribution of vehicles is considered to be uniform across the following time periods: 1990-1995, 1995-2000, 2000-2005, and 2005-2010.
  • AC Taxi Fuel consumption/km assumed to be 33% higher than regular taxi.
  • AC Bus Fuel consumption/km assumed to be 33% higher than regular bus.
  • Average all-India suburban services data assumed to be applicable to all cities. Does not include data from Delhi and Kolkata Metro.
  • Passenger load factor for charter/school bus assumed to be 100%.
  • Charter/School bus capacity assumed to be equal to single-decker BEST (Mumbai) Bus.

Private Vehicle Sources

  • Price of fuel in metro cities : Indian Oil Corporation.
  • GHG emission factors for automotive fuels : Emissions Inventory of India by Amit Garg & P. R. Shukla and Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), UK.
  • Average vehicular occupancy data : The Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
  • Vehicular per hour GHG emissions data : National Physics Laboratory, Bajaj Auto Ltd., and Ohio Supercomputer Institute (USA).
  • Average vehicular occupancy data : The Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
  • Urban vehicle fleet composition data : The Energy Research Institute (TERI).

Long Distance Travel Sources

  • Aircraft speed and passenger capacity data : Aircraft manufacturer websites, The Travel Insider website, Airliners.net.
  • International aviation load factor data : Director General Of Civil Aviation (DGCA) - Air Transport Statistics for the year 2003-2004.
  • Aircraft - cruise mode fuel consumption data : European Environmental Agency - CORINAIR Report (2001 & 2006).
  • Aircraft - Landing/Take-Off (LTO) Cycle GHG Emissions data : 2006 IPCC Guidelines.
  • Aviation fuel GHG emission coefficient : European Environmental Agency - CORINAIR Report (2001 & 2006).
  • Domestic airline fleet data : Airfleets.net and individual airline websites.
  • Aircraft speed and passenger capacity data : Aircraft manufacturer websites, The Travel Insider website, Airliners.net.
  • Domestic aviation load factor data : Director General Of Civil Aviation (DGCA) - Air Transport Statistics for the year 2005-2006.
  • Domestic passenger traffic data : Director General Of Civil Aviation (DGCA) - Air Transport Statistics for the year 2003-2004.
  • Aircraft - cruise mode fuel consumption data : European Environmental Agency - CORINAIR Report (2001 & 2006).
  • Aircraft - Landing/Take-Off (LTO) Cycle GHG Emissions data : 2006 IPCC Guidelines.
  • Aviation fuel GHG emission coefficient : European Environmental Agency CORINAIR Report (2001 & 2006).
  • Indian Railways diesel fuel and electricity consumption data : Indian Railways Annual Reports - 2006-07.
  • Indian railways passenger traffic and kilometer performance data : Indian Railways Annual Reports - 2006-07.
  • Average intercity (Volvo) bus capacity data : Specifications of Volvo vehicle exhibits at Euro Bus Expo 2006.

Long Distance Travel Assumptions

  • International air travel calculations based on a uniform distribution of following long-range aircrafts: Boeing 747, Boeing 777, and Airbus A330.
  • Domestic air travel calculations for the 'average' condition based on uniform distribution of flights (distance) and across all aircraft types owned by airlines in India.
  • For international air travel, the following definitions are implicit: Short trip = upto 4 hours, Medium trip = between 4 hours and 8 hours, Long trip = 8 hours and longer.
  • For domestic air travel, the following definitions are implicit: Short trip = upto 45 minutes, Medium trip = between 45 minutes and 90 minutes, Long trip = 90 minutes and longer.
  • Fuel use for activities other than locomotive operation has been largely ignored for Rail Travel Calculations - only Diesel Fuel use included in inventory.
  • Broad gauge rail travel used as representative scenario as it is the most predominant format.
  • For long distance train travel, the following definitions are implicit: Short trip = upto 4 hours, Medium trip = between 4 and 12 hours, Long Trip = 12 hours and longer.
  • For intercity (VOLVO) bus travel, the following definitions are implicit: Short trip = upto 4 hours, Medium trip = between 4 and 12 hours, Long Trip = 12 hours and longer.
  • Passenger load factor for intercity (VOLVO) bus assumed to be 100%.
  • Average speed for intercity (VOLVO) bus assumed to be 55 kmph.